Robert the Bruce Becomes King of Scotland
On this day in 1306, Robert the Bruce became the King of Scotland. He continued as king until his death on the 7th June 1329. He led Scotland during the Wars of Scottish Independence in which Scotland regained its independence from England. He is probably more remembered outside of Scotland for his role in the life of William Wallace, particularly since the film Braveheart based on the life of William Wallace.
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Download the following books:
King Robert the Bruce, by Alexander Falconer Murison
The Story of King Robert the Bruce, by Robert Laird Mackie
The Bruce, by John Barbour and William Mackay Mackenzie
Robert the Bruce and the Struggle for Scottish Independence, by Sir Herbert Maxwell
Luxembourg Independence Maintained
Luxembourg, known as the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a small country in western Europe bordered by Belgium, France and Germany. It has a population of about 500 000 people and is almost 1000 square miles (2 586 square kilometers) in size. It’s ‘life’ began as a small fortress in 963, from which a town developed and eventually the state of Luxembourg.
Luxembourg lost its initial independence in 1437 and from that point it was ruled by various states, but regained a form of independence following the defeat of Napoleon in 1815. From then however, it lost territory and was greatly reduced in size. Its independence was affirmed with two treaties, the first in 1839 and the second on this day in 1867, following what
is known as the Luxembourg Crisis.
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Scotland: Independence Gained and Lost
Scotland became a unified kingdom in 843 under King Cináed I, who united the Scots and the Picts. It would grow in size over time, but the Kingdom of Scotland began in 843.
Edward 1 (England) brought the majority of Scotland under his control in 1296, though Scotland regained its independence via the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314. The wars for regaining Scottish independence was begun by William Wallace and Robert the Bruce (King Robert I). The independence of Scotland was recognized by England with the Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton, signed on this day in 1328.
In 1603 the realms of England and Scotland were united by the accession of James VI to the throne of England. However, it wasn’t until this day in 1707, when the Treaty of Union was passed by the Parliament of Scotland which brought into being the United Kingdom. With this act Scotland lost its independence and there remains a movement to regain it.