Australia: New South Wales – Captain Cook Discovers Botany Bay
On this day in 1770, Captain James Cook and the HMS Endeavour arrived at Botany Bay (named Stingray Bay at first, because of the large number of stingrays spotted), which Cook later named Botany Bay because of the abundance of plants found and collected there by Sir Joseph Banks and Dr. Daniel Solander, botanists on the voyage.
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Captain James Cook: First European to Discover the Hawaiian Islands
On his third voyage of discovery, Captain James Cook commanding the HMS Resolution (accompanied by the HMS Discovery), became the first European to discover the Hawaiian Islands (which he called the ‘Sandwich Islands’). This occurred on the 18th January 1778.
On the very same day, the First Fleet arrived at Botany Bay (Australia) – an area of ‘New Holland‘ discovered by James Cook during his first voyage of discovery.
Australia – New South Wales: Transportation of Convicts to New South Wales Ended
On this day in 1840, the transportation of convicts to the colony of New South Wales in Australia ended. Transportation of convicts to New South Wales began with the departure of the first convicts from England on the 13th May 1787, with the first convicts arriving at Botany Bay on the 20th January 1788. Transportation of convicts continued in to other areas of Australia until the last ship arrived in Western Australia on the 10th January 1868.
First Fleet Leaves England for Australia
On this day in 1787, 11 ships known as the First Fleet left England for Australia. On board were 1487 people, including 778 convicts. Their destination was Botany Bay in what was then known as New Holland. The expedition was under the leadership of Captain Arthur Phillip, soon to be Governor Phillip and later Admiral Phillip. The First Fleet arrived at Botany Bay from the 18th January 1788.
An account of the journey can be found at the Internet Archive. I am currently working on a copy of this work for the Tracing our History website.
A Narrative of the Expedition to Botany Bay, by Watkin Tench