France: Napoleon Escapes from Elba
On this day in 1815, Napoleon escaped from his exile on the island of Elba and began his return to France. His return to France and his time as the renewed Emperor of France ended with the Battle of Waterloo on the 18th June 1815. Napoleon was eventually exiled to the island of Saint Helena in the Atlantic Ocean, where he died in February 1821.
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Luxembourg Independence Maintained
Luxembourg, known as the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a small country in western Europe bordered by Belgium, France and Germany. It has a population of about 500 000 people and is almost 1000 square miles (2 586 square kilometers) in size. It’s ‘life’ began as a small fortress in 963, from which a town developed and eventually the state of Luxembourg.
Luxembourg lost its initial independence in 1437 and from that point it was ruled by various states, but regained a form of independence following the defeat of Napoleon in 1815. From then however, it lost territory and was greatly reduced in size. Its independence was affirmed with two treaties, the first in 1839 and the second on this day in 1867, following what
is known as the Luxembourg Crisis.
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